Author Archives: Paul McNamara

About Paul McNamara

Nurse, educator & social media enthusiast. Loves AFL (Go Adelaide!), hates cotton wool. More info at meta4RN.com

Ye Olde Yahoo CL Nurse eMail Network

Once upon a time (February 2002) there were a bunch of mental health consultation liaison nurses in Australia, New Zealand, and other places far, far away. They were separated geographically, but became connected via the magic of email.

Keep in mind it was 2002 – Google, Facebook, Twitter etc hadn’t made their mark back then, so starting a Yahoo email list was about as clever as we could get at the time.

In 2012-2013 our Ye Olde CL Nurse Yahoo eMail network [link] stopped being used, and we transitioned to the email platform hosted via the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses instead [link].  Anyway, today I stumbled across an old powerpoint presentation and poster re Ye Olde CL Nurse Yanoo eMail Network, and thought it would be nice to plonk them both online for nostalgic/historical purposes.

Here’s the powerpoint:

 

And here’s the text from the poster and a pic + PDF of the poster itself:

Consultation Liaison Nurses
Isolated Geographically. Connected Electronically.

The Mental Health Consultation Liaison Nurse Network aims to link peers for an exchange of information and ideas. Given the nature of this mental health sub-speciality, Nurses working in this field are usually pretty independent practitioners and often don’t have regular contact with peers who share CL Nurse experiences and interests

The email network originally spluttered to life in February 2002 and has gained momentum over subsequent years. The email network’s formation and development coincided with the formation and development of the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses (ACMHN) Consultation Liaison Special Interest Group (CLSIG). The email network is also promoted by the NSW/ACT Mental Health Consultation Liaison Nurses Association. The email network is maintained by the CLSIG, but the ACMHN and the CLSIG do not take responsibility for nor endorse opinions expressed through this network.

The email network is not moderated (ie: user’s comments are uncensored), but nuisance posts (abusive, racist, sexist, advertising etc) will not be tolerated. We take pride that the tone of the email network has been always casual, generous & supportive, and that it has attracted over 320 subscribers from at least nine countries.

No matter where you live & work, if you’re a Mental Health/Psychiatric Consultation Liaison Nurse you are very welcome to join our email network…

Here’s the PDF: 1008

One Last Thing

Just a reminder, this info is being released online in September 2019 purely for nostalgic and/or historical purposes. If you’re interested in an email network for consultation liaison nurses there is one, it’s just not the Ye Olde Yahoo one described here anymore. Instead, join the email network that is being hosted by the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Consultation Liaison (CL) Special Interest Group (SIG): www.acmhn.org/home-clsig

End

Thanks for reading.

Paul McNamara, 27 September 2019

Short URL: meta4RN.com/email

Scale Fail

Please do yourself a favour, and watch Old People’s Home For 4 Year Olds on ABC iView. Over five beautifully-filmed episodes, the program follows a social experiment that brings together elderly people in a retirement village with a group of lively 4-year-olds. It’s one of the most enchanting, life-affirming TV programs I’ve seen.

The kids and the grown-ups were equally adorable – each dyad (one older person and one 4 year old) seemed to bring-out the best in each other. It was delightful to watch. Fiona the kindergarten teacher/facilitator was incredible. She has amazing interpersonal skills. [BTW: does anyone know Fiona’s surname? – she deserves to be credited properly]

I only have one problem with the program: the way the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used/portrayed. It was a very good idea that there was some pre- and post-intervention testing, and it’s terrifically handy to be able to quantify the degree that people self-rate their mood. However, all the scales I’ve ever seen, including the GDS-15,  come with the disclaimer that they’re screening tools, not diagnostic tools. However, that’s not the way the GDS-15 was portrayed on this TV program.

Screenshot from approx. 47 minutes into Episode 5 showing the false dichotomy that 5 or below on GDS-15 = “not depressed” and 6 or above = “depressed”. Pfft! As if.

In the TV program the geriatricians referred to scores above 5 on the GDS as “depressed”. That’s not quite the way it works. The GDS-15 does not diagnose.

Four reasons why the GDS-15 is not a diagnostic tool:

  1. The GDS-15 asks for a “snapshot” of how the person has been feeling for the past week. As per the diagnostic frameworks used worldwide (DSM-5 and ICD-10) symptoms must be present for at least two weeks for depression to be diagnosed.
  2. The GDS-15 is a dumb screening tool. It won’t (and can’t) take social circumstances into account. Many of the symptoms of depression are also symptoms of grief/bereavement/significant recent stress. GDS-15 questions include:
    • “Have you dropped many of your activities and interests over the last week ?”
    • “Over the last week have you been in good spirits most of the time?”
    • “In the last week have you been feeling happy most of the time?”
    • “In the last week, have you preferred to stay at home, rather than going out and doing things?”
    • “In the last week have you been thinking that it is wonderful to be alive?”
      If your spouse died 10 days ago, not only would these questions be terribly insensitive, but your answers probably wouldn’t be very positive. That doesn’t mean you’re depressed. That means you loved your spouse. The GDS-15 screens for symptoms, not context.
  3. There’s more than one way to interpret the GDS-15 score. Which is the correct way? It depends who you ask:
    • As per the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, “Although differing sensitivities and specificities have been obtained across studies, for clinical purposes a score >5 points is suggestive of depression and should warrant a follow up interview. Scores >10 are almost always depression.” [source]
    • As per an online version of the GDS-15 endorsed by the GDS-15 lead authors [source], the meaning of the scores are thus:
      0 – 4 = normal, depending on age, education, complaints
      5 – 8 = mild
      9 – 11 = moderate
      12 – 15 = severe
    •  As per the screenshot above, the geriatricians in Old People’s Home For 4 Year Olds set a cut-off line between “not depressed” and “depressed” at 5.5,
  4. The model of a dichotomy of “depressed” or “not depressed” does not reflect reality. You don’t suddenly get labelled “depressed” because you scored 6 on the GDS-15, and you aren’t suddenly deemed “not-depressed” because you scored 5 the next time you’re screened. In reality, clinically significant changes in mood tend to happen over weeks or months. Minor day-to-day fluctuations are just part of the human experience – not something to be pathologised.
    When it comes to mood, you don’t cross a line between “depressed” and “not depressed”. There is a line, but it’s a continuum. It’s a continuum that we all slide up and down. It’s just that people who experience depression travel further along the continuum than they would like.

Closing Remarks

Please don’t let my critique of the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale deter you from watching Old People’s Home For 4 Year Olds. It’s a terrific program based on a wonderful idea, which is articulated further on the Ageless Play website [here].

Something I do in my paid job and as part of my [unpaid] social media portfolio, is to challenge the myths and misunderstandings that happen around mental health matters. As I’ve argued previously [here], all I’m doing in this blog post is articulating my argument why we should resist the temptation to interpret screening tools as diagnostic tools.

End

That’s it. As always, feedback is welcome via the comments section below.

Paul McNamara, 26 September 2019

Short URL: meta4RN.com/scale

Protecting Nurses and Patients

Q: What do wearing gloves, using lifting machines, legislating ratios and clinical supervision have in common?

A: They’re all measures that protect nurses and their patients. 

Gloves

Back in ye olde days when I started nursing (the 1980s) the concept of “universal precautions” was introduced (source). In short, suddenly all body fluids were to be treated as potentially infectious. It didn’t matter if you arrived in hospital as a needle-sharing, sexually promiscuous, pus-and-rash stricken bleeding wreck, or a saintly and demure sex, drug and rock-and-roll avoidant 80 year old nun, we treated your body fluids the same. Amongst the changes this heralded was that gloves were to be worn whenever there was a risk of coming into contact with body fluids. It was a new way of working for older nurses and doctors. For newbies it was just standard practice: so much so, that in the mid 1990s the term “universal precautions” was replaced by “standard precautions” in Australia (source). 

My first (short lived, temporary) job as a RN was in a nursing home. I had to argue for gloves to be made readily available for the AINs, ENs and RNs. The initial response was along the lines of: [1] using disposable gloves for every encounter with body fluids will be expensive, [2] nurses can wash their hands if they come into contact with urine or faeces, and [3] do you REALLY think that any of these elderly people have been sharing needles or having unprotected anal sex to contract HIV? They came around, but at first the management just did not understand that universal/standard precautions were not just a nuisance cost, but actually an investment in protecting staff and residents/patients.

Lifting

When I was a student nurse I was often made to feel very warm and fuzzy inside. Not because of my sparkling wit and ruggedly handsome looks (🙄), not because of my enthusiastic and self-motivated approach to work, not because of my knowledge or skill, but because I was able to lift people easier than some of my more petite colleagues. Big boofy blokey nurses were handy to have around when patients need to hoisted up a bed, onto a barouche, or transferred between bed and chair. 

In the hospital I trained in there were a few lifting machines. The way I remember* it, there were about 3 of them for a 900 bed hospital. So, I was a bit incredulous when I first heard of a “No Lift Policy” in the mid-1990s. “As if!”, I thought, “It will be too slow and too expensive to be practical. It’ll never happen.” Anyway, I was wrong. The No Lift Policy was implemented, and has since been renamed and reframed as Safe Patient Handling. The change has been endorsed by employers and the nurses’ union alike. Nurses of my age/era often have back pain, but younger/newer nurses are now better protected. The purchase of safe patient handling equipment and expense of training is not just a nuisance cost, but actually an investment in protecting staff and patients.

Nurses who were students in the 1980s (ie: pre-No Lift Policy)

Ratios

When I was a student nurse it would be usual to be allocated 6-8 patients on either a morning or afternoon shift, and up to 16ish on night shift. On a ward of over 30 patients in a surgical or medical ward in a large acute hospital, it was pretty standard for one RN and 2 student nurses to run the whole thing overnight. #scarynostalgia 

In Australia the states of Victoria and Queensland have legislated nurse:patient ratios. Since July 2016 Queensland nurse:patient ratios have been credited with avoiding 145 deaths, 255 readmissions, and 29 200 hospital bed-days. Amazingly, ratios have been evaluated to save up to $81 million (source). Implementing ratios to stop nurses from burning-out over workloads and to improve quality of care is not just a nuisance cost, but actually an investment in protecting staff and patients.

Clinical Supervision 

In April 2019 a joint position statement was issued by the Australian College of Nursing, the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Australian College of Midwives that Clinical Supervision is recommended for all nurses and midwives irrespective of their specific role, area of practice and years of experience (source). 

As articulated in the joint statement, there is consistent evidence that effective clinical supervision impacts positively on professional development, and retention of a healthy and sustainable workforce. There is also evidence that clinical supervision of health-care staff impacts positively on outcomes for service-users.

I expect to be still working full time in 5 years time, but not in 10. I hope that by the time I pull-up stumps clinical supervision becomes embedded in nursing practice. Clinical supervision is not just a nuisance cost, but actually an investment in protecting staff and patients. 

End Notes

*not a reliable source: I have the memory of a stoned goldfish

Thanks for reading this far. As always, feedback is welcomed via the comments section below.

Thanks to Stella Green for giving permission to share our nearly-funny SMS.

Paul McNamara, 31 August 2019

Short URL meta4RN.com/protect

Share or Perish!


 

About a decade ago, the old academic refrain to ‘publish or perish’ was updated to ‘be cited or perish’. A couple of days ago we published a paper arguing for a new call-to-arms: ‘share or perish’.

The truth is not too many people are perishing in the academic space. However, there is a pretty good indication that publishing in a journal that has a social media strategy makes a difference.

Want evidence? Have a look at these excerpts from our paper that compares the 18 months before the appointment of a social media editor for the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing (IJMHN) with the 18 months after that appointment.

First piece of evidence is in Figure 1 (below). Data from Twitonomy collated in 6‐monthly increments shows that after appointment of an IJMHN social media editor there was a 13½‐fold increase in tweets, and a 16‐fold increase in shared URLs.

Figure 1. Twitter Activity before and after the commencement of IJMHN social media editor on 01/01/17. Data from Twitonomy collated in 6‐monthly increments.

Figure 2 (below) plots 4 different data points. 

It shows that Impressions increased from an average of 118 per day to 2839 per day. That’s a 24-fold increase on how many Twitter accounts potentially saw an @IJMHN Tweet each day. 

Retweets increased from an average 62 retweets every 6 months to over 2140 retweets every 6 months. That’s a 35-fold increase in the number of time @IJMHN Tweets were shared – a remarkable increase in audience reach.

Similarly, the ‘likes’ that @IJMHN attracted increased from 45 times every 6 months to 2083 every 6 months. That’s a 46-fold increase in people acknowledging or showing approval to @IJMHN Tweets.

Most importantly, the number of times people clicked on the link (URL) of an IJMHN paper increased markedly too. It jumped from 129 to 2960 link clicks recorded every six months – a 23‐fold increase.

Figure 2. Twitter Impact before and after the commencement of IJMHN social media editor on 01/01/17. Data from Twitter Analytics collated in 6‐monthly increments.

The final data point I’ll present here is the Altmetric Attention Score (AAS), as shown in Figure 3 (below). The AAS increased from an average of 490 to 1317 every 6 months. This equates to an 169% increase in online attention and activity for IJMHN.

Figure 3. Altmetric Attention Score and Number of Articles published before and after the commencement of IJMHN social media editor on 01/01/17. Data from Altmetric collated in 6‐monthly increments.

Closing Remarks

This simplified summary of the paper misses some of the data and the description of context, the social media strategy and the reporting method. Please see the original paper for more info [link].

Want to find out more about how some of this stuff is measured? Start here: https://wiley.altmetric.com/details/62929297

Please share the link to this blog and/or to our paper about stage one of the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing social media strategy.

Don’t forget: Share or Perish! 

Citation 

McNamara, P. and Usher, K. (2019), Share or perish: Social media and the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, online from 30/06/19, volume and issue yet to be allocated [I’ll update this when it’s in an issue]
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12600
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/inm.12600 

End

As always, feedback is welcomed via the comments section below.

Paul McNamara, 2 July 2019

Short URL: meta4RN.com/share

ieMR Liaison Psych Templates

A Quick Explanation

In the hospital that I work in we use ieMR. I’m a fan of ieMR, even though it has made the bad art of gingerbread women/men, genograms and other diagrams obsolete (more about that here: meta4RN.com/picture).

Car vs Bike Wounds: even an illustration that completely lacks artistic merit can convey a lot of information more effectively than a page full of text.

One of the reasons I like ieMR is that it accommodates auto-text/templates, which – in turn – assists clinicians to document with better consistency and more structure than they might have otherwise. When we have students on placement I used to send them MS Word versions of my ieMR templates, and assist them to get get them set-up on their ieMR account. That’s become a bit tricky to do since my hospital has shifted to Office365, so I am liberating the templates onto this blog page simply to circumnavigate that problem.

I’ve made it clear from the very beginning that this website does not represent the opinions of anyone else or any organisation (see number 13 here: meta4RN.com/about). So, just as a reminder, I’m putting the templates here because emailing them to students as word documents doesn’t work anymore. It’s not a recommendation for you. It’s not my employer’s idea. It’s fine if you don’t like the templates. It’s fine if you never use them yourself. I’m doing this simply for the convenience of me and the students I work with, that’s all.

Making ieMR auto-text/templates

To set-up ieMR auto-text/templates It’s easiest to get someone who knows how to sit with you for 2 minutes to show you. Really, about 2 minutes is all it takes.

In the absence of a helpful human there’s videos (eg: here) and PDFs (eg: here) to guide you. Or just google your question – some hospitals have their help info behind their firewall, but many do not.

That’s all the explanation I want to give. The prime purpose of this blog post is to share the content for easy copy and paste, so let’s get on with it…

Initial/Comprehensive Psychiatric Assessment

Review

Cognitive Screening results

End of Episode/Transfer of Care

End

That’s it. I’ve only just realised now that the formatting doesn’t carry across to ieMR. Bugger.

Please let me know via the comments section below if you know how to overcome that problem easily. BTW: as you can probably tell by this very basic-looking website, i’m not a coder or computer whiz. If there’s a fix it’ll need to be pretty straight forward for me to get it right :-).

Paul McNamara, 20 June 2019

Short URL: meta4RN.com/ieMR

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Australia License.

How can we be integrated if nobody knows about us? #ACMHN2019

I’ve been asked to be one of the keynote speakers at the 45th International Mental Health Nursing Conference in Sydney, being held from 8th to 10th October 2019 (see the #ACMHN2019 hashtag on Twitter). To be an invited speaker at such a prestigious conference is a pretty big deal to me.

This blog page serves as a place to find my presentation quickly and easily [here], and as a place to collate and list references.

Click to go to Prezi

Bio (from www.acmhn2019.com/speakers)

Paul McNamara has been a nurse since 1988, a mental health nurse since 1993, a credentialed mental health nurse since 2006, and a fellow of ACMHN since 2008. He works as a consultation liaison CNC at Cairns Hospital. Paul also tinkers online quite a bit; he has a social media portfolio built around the homophone “meta4RN”, which can be read as either “metaphor RN” or “meta for RN”.   

Screengrab from the ACMHN2019.com website

More info about the conference here: www.ACMHN2019.com

References/Further Reading 

Altmetric Attention Score for Share or perish: Social media and the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing wiley.altmetric.com/details/62929297

Altmetric Attention Score for Do adult mental health services identify child abuse and neglect? A systematic review wiley.altmetric.com/details/23964454

Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (2014, March 17). Social media policy. Retrieved from www.ahpra.gov.au

Bec @notesforreview (2019, October 2). Because of Twitter I have – ^ academic/clinical knowledge – Learnt about current prof issues – Learnt from experts by experience – Gained new perspectives – Challenged biases – Made wonderful connections – Received & given support – Co-authored an article for ‘s magazine [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/notesforreview/status/1179344079609577472?s=21

Buus Lassen, Neils. (2019, September 11). in ‘Researchers: “We waste time and money writing articles none cares to read”‘, CBS Wire. Retrieved from cbswire.dk/researchers-we-waste-time-and-money-writing-articles-no-one-cares-to-read

Casella, E., Mills, J., & Usher, K. (2014). Social media and nursing practice: Changing the balance between the social and technical aspects of work. Collegian, 21(2), 121–126. www.collegianjournal.com/article/S1322-7696(14)00033-X/abstract

Facebook. (2015). Facebook logo. Retrieved from www.facebookbrand.com

Garfield, Stan. (2016, September 14). 90-9-1 Rule of Thumb: Fact or Fiction? www.linkedin.com/pulse/90-9-1-rule-thumb-fact-fiction-stan-garfield

Google. (2019). Map retrieved from www.google.com.au/maps/place/Cairns

#HealthUpNorth info www.health.qld.gov.au/cairns_hinterland/join-our-team/healthupnorth

#HealthUpNorth pics www.instagram.com/explore/tags/healthupnorth

Li, C. (2009). Foreword. In: S. Israel (Ed). Twitter Ville: How businesses can thrive in the new global neighborhoods. New York: Portfolio. books.google.com.au

Li, C. (2015). Charlene Li photo. Retrieved from www.charleneli.com/about-charlene/reviewer-resources/

Luddites I have known: meta4RN.com/luddites

McNamara, P. (2014). A Nurse’s Guide to Twitter. Retrieved from web.archive.org/web/20190607185707/https://www.ausmed.com.au/twitter-for-nurses

McNamara, P., & Meijome, X. M. (2015). Twitter Para Enfermeras (Spanish/Español).
Retrieved from web.archive.org/web/20151004183805/http://www.ausmed.com.au/es/twitter-para-enfermeras

McNamara, P. (2013) Behave online as you would in real life (letter to the editor), TQN: The Queensland Nurse, June 2013, Volume 32, Number 3, Page 4. meta4RN.com/TQN

McNamara, P. and Usher, K. (2019), Share or perish: Social media and the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 28(4), 960-970. doi:10.1111/inm.12600

Professional use of Twitter: meta4RN.com/poster

New South Wales Nurses and Midwives Association [nswnma]. (2014, July 30). Women now have unmediated access to public conversation via social media for 1st time in history @JaneCaro #NSWNMAconf14 #destroythejoint [Tweet].
Retrieved from twitter.com/nswnma/status/494313737575096321

Nurse and Midwife Blogroll www.nurseuncut.com.au/blog-roll

Salzmann‐Erikson, M. (2018), Mental health nurses’ use of Twitter for professional purposes during conference participation using #acmhn2016. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27: 804-813. doi:10.1111/inm.12367

Thinking Health Communication? Think Mobile. meta4RN.com/mobile

Twitter. (2015). Twitter logo. Retrieved from about.twitter.com/press/brand-assets

Wall Media. (2015). Jane Caro photo. Retrieved from wallmedia.com.au/jane-caro/

Ward, Kylie. (2019, May 21). Nurses: the hidden healthcare professionals. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from www.smh.com.au/healthcare/nurses-the-hidden-healthcare-professionals-20190521-p51pq2.html

Wilson, R., Ranse, J., Cashin, A., & McNamara, P. (2014). Nurses and Twitter: The good, the bad, and the reluctant. Collegian, 21(2), 111–119. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2013.09.003

WordPress. (2015). WordPress logo. Retrieved from wordpress.org/about/logos/

Wozniak, H., Uys, P., & Mahoney, M. J. (2012). Digital communication in a networked world. In J. Higgs, R. Ajjawi, L. McAllister, F. Trede, & S. Loftus (Eds.), Communication in the health sciences (3rd ed., pp. 150–162). South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

Ye Olde Yahoo CL Nurse eMail Network meta4RN.com/email

YouTube. (2015). YouTube logo. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/yt/brand/downloads.html

 

End 

Thanks for reading this far. You might be the only person who has. 🙂

As always, your feedback is welcome via the comments section below.

Paul McNamara, 4 October 2019

Short URL meta4RN.com/ACMHN2019

10 Delirium Misconceptions

This table/info extracted from Oldham et al (2018) is too handy not to share:

PDF version [easy to print]: 10DeliriumMisconceptions

Text version [just putting it here so that it’s searchable; hello google :-)]

1.
Misconception: This patient is oriented to person, place, and time. They’re not delirious.
Best Evidence: Delirium evaluation minimally requires assessing attention, orientation, memory, and the thought process, ideally at least once per nursing shift, to capture daily fluctuations in mental status.
2.
Misconception: Delirium always resolves.
Best Evidence: Especially in cognitively vulnerable patients, delirium may persist for days or even months after the proximal “causes” have been addressed.
3.
Misconception: We should expect frail, older patients to get confused at times, especially after receiving pain medication.
Best Evidence: Confusion in frail, older patients always requires further assessment.
4.
Misconception: The goal of a delirium work-up is to find the main cause of delirium.
Best Evidence: Delirium aetiology is typically multifactorial.
5.
Misconception: New-onset psychotic symptoms in late life likely represents primary mental illness.
Best Evidence: New delusions or hallucinations, particularly nonauditory, in middle age or later deserve evaluation for delirium or another medical cause.
6.
Misconception: Delirium in patients with dementia is less important because these patients are already confused at baseline.
Best Evidence: Patients with dementia deserve even closer monitoring for delirium because of their elevated delirium risk and because delirium superimposed on dementia indicates marked vulnerability.
7.
Misconception: Delirium treatment should include psychotropic medication.
Best Evidence: They are best used judiciously, if at all, for specific behaviours or symptoms rather than delirium itself.
8.
Misconception: The patient is delirious due to a psychiatric cause.
Best Evidence: Delirium always has a physiological cause.
9.
Misconception: It’s often best to let quiet patients rest.
Best Evidence: Hypoactive delirium is common and often under-recognized.
10.
Misconception: Patients become delirious just from being in the intensive care unit.
Best Evidence:  Delirium in the intensive care unit, as with delirium occurring in any setting, is caused by physiological and pharmacological insults.

Source/Reference

Oldham, M., Flanagan, N., Khan, A., Boukrina, O. & Marcantonio, E. (2018) Responding to Ten Common Delirium Misconceptions With Best Evidence: An Educational Review for Clinicians. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 30:1, 51-57.
doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17030065

End

This is the least original blog post I’ve written. All I’ve done is transpose a table from this paper.

Why bother? So I can quickly and easily share it at work. I have conversations about this stuff a lot, especially misconceptions 1, 7 and 8. It’s handy to have an accessible and credible source to support these discussions.

That’s it. Visit the journal article yourself for elaboration about the misconceptions and evidence of delirium: doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17030065

Paul McNamara, 18 April 2019

Short URL meta4RN.com/10Delirium